Wideband Electromagnetic Body Phantoms for the Evaluation of Wireless Communications in the Microwave Spectrum
Sergio Castelló Palacios
The constant evolution of technology and the search for new applications that improve people's lives has led to the arrival of the incorporation of these technologies in the organism. Wireless body area networks (WBANs) are a good example of this, consisting of communications networks located in the body itself, both on the surface and implanted inside it through the use of wireless devices. These networks use the human body as the transmitting medium, so its influence over the propagation has to be assessed. Besides, new generations of mobile communications are moving towards the use of higher frequencies, as the millimetre waves, which are more sensitive to the presence of any object in the environment, including humans. The research and design of antennas and devices that take into account the human body requires testing in the environment where these are supposed to be used. Phantoms become a tool for evaluating the transmission of electromagnetic signals in a body-equivalent medium in order to avoid experimentation on humans or animals. In addition to that, the influence of these electromagnetic waves over the tissues themselves can be studied with regard to the specific absorption rate (SAR).