Location and Tracking for Ultra-WideBand In-Body Communications in Medical Applications
Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a remarkable and attractive technology adopted in the biomedical sector several years ago. It provides a non-invasive wireless imaging technology for the entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract. WCE allows specialists to recognize and diagnose diseases affecting the whole GI tract. Although physicians can receive clear pictures of abnormalities in the GI tract, they have no information about their exact location. Precise localization of the detected disorders is crucial for the subsequent removal procedure by surgery. Currently, the frequency band allocated for capsule endoscopy applications is the MICS band (402-405 MHz). This band offers data rate up to 500 kbps, which is insufficient to transmit high quality images. Recently, Ultrawideband (UWB) technology has been attracting attention as potential candidate for next-generation WCE systems. The advantages of UWB include simple transceiver architectures enabling low power consumption, low interference to other systems and wide bandwidth resulting in communications at higher data rate. In this dissertation, performance of WCE localization techniques based on Radio Frequency (RF) information are investigated through software simulations, experimental laboratory measurements involving homogeneous and heterogeneous phantom models and in vivo experiments which constitute the most realistic testing scenario. Ultra-Wideband technology (3.1-10.6 GHz) is considered as communication interface in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy. In such scenario, the wireless transmitter is located in the gastrointestinal track while one or more wireless receivers are located over the surface of the body. Received Signal Strength (RSS)-based approach is mainly explored due to its implementation simplicity and less sensitivity to bandwidth limitations. Impact of the position and the number of selected receivers on the localization accuracy is analyzed. Finally, a graphical user interface (GUI) is developed to visualize the three-dimensional (3D) localization results obtained through in vivo measurements.