UWB radio channel and diversity characterization for wireless implanted devices
Carlos Andreu Estellés
Wireless Body Area Networks allow the interconnection between independent nodes located either inside or over the body skin or further. Regarding in-body communications, establishing a proper link with a capsule endoscope or with a pacemaker are examples of technological advances achieved in the last decades. In spite of these healthcare developments, current standards for these kind of communications do not allow high data rate wireless connections, which are common in the current telecommunication services. UWB systems have emerged as a potential solution for future wireless in-body communications. Nevertheless, the main drawback of UWB for in-body applications is the high attenuation of human body tissues which increases dramatically with the increment of frequency. Hence, an accurate UWB in-body channel characterization is relevant in order validate UWB frequency band as the best candidate for future networks of implantable nodes. This thesis is devoted to test UWB technology for in-body communications from an experimental point of view. To achieve this goal, a novel spatial phantom-based measurement setup is used in several in-body propagation scenarios. Thus, the losses in the propagation medium and the channel diversity are checked in a reliable way. In order to check the values obtained in laboratory, they are compared and discussed with those obtained in an in vivo experiment. On the other hand, new UWB antenna candidates for inbody communications are designed and manufactured by using typical and new miniaturization and antenna optimization techniques for this purpose. Finally, diversity-based techniques are used to improve the performance of the propagation channel in two different in-body scenarios.